PostgreSQL, also known as Postgres, is a popular open-source relational database management system (RDBMS) that is widely used by developers and organizations around the world. FreeBSD, a free and open-source operating system, is well-known for its reliability, performance, and security features. In this blog post, we will guide you through the process of installing PostgreSQL in FreeBSD. Whether you’re a developer or a system administrator, this step-by-step tutorial will help you get started with it.
You have to be a local administrator to use
pkg, the FreeBSD package manager. Switch to root to start the process:
Search and install postgres. I recommend using the latest version.
pkg search postgresql pkg install postgresql15-server
===== Message from postgresql15-server-15.1_1: -- For procedural languages and postgresql functions, please note that you might have to update them when updating the server. If you have many tables and many clients running, consider raising kern.maxfiles using sysctl(8), or reconfigure your kernel appropriately. The port is set up to use autovacuum for new databases, but you might also want to vacuum and perhaps backup your database regularly. There is a periodic script, /usr/local/etc/periodic/daily/502.pgsql, that you may find useful. You can use it to backup and perform vacuum on all databases nightly. Per default, it performs `vacuum analyze'. See the script for instructions. For autovacuum settings, please review ~postgres/data/postgresql.conf. If you plan to access your PostgreSQL server using ODBC, please consider running the SQL script /usr/local/share/postgresql/odbc.sql to get the functions required for ODBC compliance. Please note that if you use the rc script, /usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql, to initialize the database, unicode (UTF-8) will be used to store character data by default. Set postgresql_initdb_flags or use login.conf settings described below to alter this behaviour. See the start rc script for more info. To set limits, environment stuff like locale and collation and other things, you can set up a class in /etc/login.conf before initializing the database. Add something similar to this to /etc/login.conf: --- postgres:\ :lang=en_US.UTF-8:\ :setenv=LC_COLLATE=C:\ :tc=default: --- and run `cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf'. Then add 'postgresql_class="postgres"' to /etc/rc.conf. ====================================================================== To initialize the database, run /usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql initdb You can then start PostgreSQL by running: /usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql start For postmaster settings, see ~postgres/data/postgresql.conf NB. FreeBSD's PostgreSQL port logs to syslog by default See ~postgres/data/postgresql.conf for more info NB. If you're not using a checksumming filesystem like ZFS, you might wish to enable data checksumming. It can be enabled during the initdb phase, by adding the "--data-checksums" flag to the postgresql_initdb_flags rcvar. Otherwise you can enable it later by pg_checksums. Check the initdb(1) manpage for more info and make sure you understand the performance implications. ====================================================================== To run PostgreSQL at startup, add 'postgresql_enable="YES"' to /etc/rc.conf
Configure postgres to autostart by adding
... postgresql_enable="YES" ...
Initialize the database:
The files belonging to this database system will be owned by user "postgres". This user must also own the server process. The database cluster will be initialized with this locale configuration: provider: libc LC_COLLATE: C LC_CTYPE: C.UTF-8 LC_MESSAGES: C.UTF-8 LC_MONETARY: C.UTF-8 LC_NUMERIC: C.UTF-8 LC_TIME: C.UTF-8 The default text search configuration will be set to "english". Data page checksums are disabled. creating directory /var/db/postgres/data15 ... ok creating subdirectories ... ok selecting dynamic shared memory implementation ... posix selecting default max_connections ... 100 selecting default shared_buffers ... 128MB selecting default time zone ... US/Eastern creating configuration files ... ok running bootstrap script ... ok performing post-bootstrap initialization ... ok syncing data to disk ... ok initdb: warning: enabling "trust" authentication for local connections initdb: hint: You can change this by editing pg_hba.conf or using the option -A, or --auth-local and --auth-host, the next time you run initdb. Success. You can now start the database server using: /usr/local/bin/pg_ctl -D /var/db/postgres/data15 -l logfile start
And start it:
You can verify it works by connecting to it using the default user, conveniently called
psql -U postgres
psql (15.1) Type "help" for help. postgres=#
postgres=# shell indicates that the process was successful. Press
Ctrl-D to return to the regular shell.
Create a database and a user
Connect to postgres, like we did before:
psql -U postgres
and enter the following sql:
CREATE DATABASE mydatabase; CREATE USER myusername WITH ENCRYPTED PASSWORD 'mypassword'; GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON DATABASE mydatabase TO myusername;
Connecting from java
Download the postgres driver or add the dependency to your maven project:
<dependency> <groupId>org.postgresql</groupId> <artifactId>postgresql</artifactId> <version>42.6.0</version> </dependency>
Then, a simple jdbc connection can be created like this:
static final String JDBC_DRIVER = "org.postgresql.Driver"; static final String DB_URL = "jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/mydatabase"; static final String USER = "myusername"; static final String PASS = "mypassword"; Class.forName(JDBC_DRIVER); conn = DriverManager.getConnection(DB_URL, USER, PASS); // use the connection...
Installing PostgreSQL on FreeBSD is a relatively simple process that can be accomplished with just a few steps. By following the instructions outlined in this post, you can easily set up a Postgres database on your FreeBSD system, and start using it for your applications or projects. With its robust features and excellent performance, Postgres is an excellent choice for anyone looking for a powerful, open-source RDBMS. So, if you’re using FreeBSD, don’t hesitate to give PostgreSQL a try!